Study of Genes and Genetics


Study of Genes and Genetics

Chemical bases

The genes are further made up of unique codes of chemical bases comprising of A, T, C and G (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine). These chemical bases make up combinations with permutations and combinations. These are akin to the words on a page.

These chemical bases are part of the DNA. The words when strung together act as the blueprints that tell the cells of the body when and how to grow, mature and perform various functions. With age, the genes may be affected and may develop faults and damages due to environmental and endogenous toxins.

Males and females

Women have 46 chromosomes (44 autosomes plus two copies of the X chromosome) in their body cells. They have half of this or 22 autosomes plus an X chromosome in their egg cells.

Men have 46 chromosomes (44 autosomes plus an X and a Y chromosome) in their body cells and have half of these 22 autosomes plus an X or Y chromosome in their sperm cells.

When the egg joins with the sperm, the resultant baby has 46 chromosomes (with either an XX in a female baby or XY in a male baby).

Genes and genetics

Each gene is a piece of genetic information. All the DNA in the cell makes up for the human genome. There are about 20,000 genes located on one of the 23 chromosome pairs found in the nucleus.

To date, about 12,800 genes have been mapped to specific locations (loci) on each of the chromosomes. This database was begun as part of the Human Genome Project. The project was officially completed in April 2003 but the exact number of genes in the human genome is still unknown.