Glomerular Filtration Rate

Image Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time. Central to the physiologic maintenance of GFR is the differential basal tone of the afferent and efferent arterioles (see diagram). In other words, the filtration rate is dependent on the difference between the higher blood pressure created by vasoconstriction of the input or afferent arteriole versus the lower blood pressure created by lesser vasoconstriction of the output or efferent arteriole. GFR is equal to the Clearance ... Read More

Renal function

Image Renal function is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine clearance rate (CCr or CrCl) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR. Creatinine clearance exceeds GFR due to creatinine secretion, which can be blocked by cimetidine. Both GFR and CCr may be accurately calculated by comparative measurements of substances in the blood and urine, or estimated by formulas using ... Read More

Pain Management in Children

Image Pain management in children is the assessment and treatment of pain in infants and children. Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain. The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses. The team may also include other mental health specialists and massage therapists. Types... Read More

Trauma

Image Trauma surgery is a surgical specialty that utilizes both operative and non-operative management to treat traumatic injuries, typically in an acute setting. Trauma surgeons generally complete residency training in General Surgery and often fellowship training in trauma or surgical critical care. The trauma surgeon is responsible for initially resuscitating and stabilizing and later evaluating and managing the patient. The attending trauma surgeon also leads the trauma team, which typically includes nurses and support staff as well as resident physicians in teaching hospitals. ... Read More

Dialysis

Image In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, Dialysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dia, "through", and λύσις, lysis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes, and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions naturally. This is referred to as renal replacement therapy. Dialysis is used in patients with rapidly developing loss of kidney function, called acute kidney injury (previously called acute renal ... Read More

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Image Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine. RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 90–95% of cases. Initial treatment is most commonly either partial or complete removal of the affected kidney(s).Where the cancer has not metastasised (spread to other organs) or burrowed deeper into the tissues of the kidney, the five-year survival rate is 65–90%,but this is lowered considerably when ... Read More

Airway Management

Image Airway management includes a set of maneuvers and medical procedures performed to prevent and relieve airway obstruction. This ensures an open pathway for gas exchange between a patient's lungs and the atmosphere.This is accomplished by either clearing a previously obstructed airway; or by preventing airway obstruction in cases such as anaphylaxis, the obtunded patient, or medical sedation. Airway obstruction can be caused by the tongue, foreign objects, the tissues of the airway itself, and bodily fluids such as blood and gastric contents. Airway management is commonly divide... Read More

Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology

Image Cardiothoracic anesthesiology is a sub speciality of the medical practice of anesthesiology, devoted to the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care of adult and Pediatric patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery and related invasive procedures. It deals with the anesthesia aspects of care related to surgical cases such as open heart surgery, lung surgery, and other operations of the human chest. These aspects include perioperative care with expert manipulation of patient cardiopulmonary physiology through precise and advanced application of pharmacology, resuscitati... Read More

Good pasture’s Syndrome

Image Good pasture syndrome (GPS), also known as anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure. It is thought to attack the alpha-3 subunit of type IV collagen, which has therefore been referred to as Good pasture’s antigen. Good pasture syndrome may quickly result in permanent lung and kidney damage, often leading to death. It is treated with medications that suppress the immune system such as corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, ... Read More

Pyelonephritis

Image Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection. Symptoms most often include fever and flank tenderness. Other symptoms may include nausea, burning with urination, and frequent urination. Complications may include pus around the kidney, sepsis, or kidney failure. It is typically due to a bacterial infection, most commonly Escherichia coli. Risk factors include sexual intercourse, prior urinary tract infections, diabetes, structural problems of the urinary tract, and spermicide use. The mechanism of infection is usually spread up the urinary tra... Read More

What do anesthesiologists do?

Image An anesthesiologist is a doctor who gives a patient medication so they do not feel pain when they are undergoing surgery. However, these specialist physicians play a much wider role than just putting people to sleep for surgery. They are also involved in a range of other medical procedures, including carrying out assessments in critical care units, dealing with emergency situations, and giving advice about pain management. The anesthesiologist provides pain relief before, during and after surgery, but they also fulfill a number of other important roles. Pain reli... Read More

Palliative care

Image Palliative care (derived from the Latin root palliare, or “to cloak”) refers to an interdisciplinary medical caregiving approach aimed at optimizing quality of life and mitigating suffering among people with serious, complex illness. Within the published literature, many definitions of palliative care exist; most notably, the World Health Organization describes palliative care as "an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means o... Read More

Hematuria

Image Hematuria (American English) or haematuria (British English) is a clinical sign. It is defined by the presence of blood or red blood cells in the urine. An anatomical framework is helpful in developing a comprehensive differential diagnosis. Blood or red blood cells can enter and mix with urine at multiple anatomical sites. These include the urinary system, female reproductive system, and integumentary system. Urinary causes occur anywhere between the kidney glomerulus and the urethral meatus. These can be divided into glomerular and non-glomerular causes. Non-glomerular causes ca... Read More

When You Should See a Nephrologist?

Image Nephrologists are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease. What conditions are treated by a kidney doctor, and when is a referral to one of these specialists needed? If you haven't heard about nephrology (the study of kidney disease) before, it's not surprising. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often referred to as the "silent killer," as many people have mild symptoms or no symptoms at all when they are diagnosed. There are many different terms which can be used to describe kidney disease which can add to the confusion. As noted... Read More

Geriatric Anesthesia

Image Geriatric anesthesia (or geriatric anaesthesia) is the branch of medicine that studies anesthesia approach in elderly. The perioperative care of elderly patients differs from that of younger patients for a number of reasons. Some of these can be attributed to the changes that occur in the process of aging, but many are also caused by diseases that accompany seniority. The distinction between so-called normal aging and pathological changes is critical to the care of elderly people. Anesthesia and surgery has become more common as the population survives longer. Perioperative manage... Read More

Local anesthesia

Image Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well. It allows patients to undergo surgical and dental procedures with reduced pain and distress. In many situations, such as cesarean section, it is safer and therefore superior to general anesthesia. It is also used for relief of non-surgical pain and to enable diagnosis of the cause of some chronic pain conditions. Anesthetists sometimes combine both gen... Read More

Kidney failure

Image Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are functioning at less than 15% of normal. Kidney failure is classified as either acute kidney failure, which develops rapidly and may resolve; or chronic kidney failure, which develops slowly. Symptoms may include leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, and confusion. Complications of acute and chronic failure include uremia, high blood potassium, and volume overload. Complications of chronic failure also include heart disease, high blood pressure, and anemia. Cau... Read More

Kidney Transplantation

Image Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage kidney disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor kidney transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient. Exchanges and chains are a novel approach to... Read More

Pain Management

Image Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain. The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses. The team may also include other mental health specialists and massage therapists. Pain sometimes resolves promptly once the underlying trauma or pathology has healed, and is treated by one practitioner, wit... Read More

Anesthesia and Its Role in Clinical Sciences

Image Anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness. A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized. Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedure that would otherwise cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient, or would otherwise be technically unfea... Read More

Glomerulonephritis

Image Glomerulonephritis (gloe-mer-u-low-nuh-FRY-tis) is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli). Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).  Glomerulonephritis occurs on its own or as part of another disease, such as lupus or diabetes. Severe or prolonged inflammation associated with glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys. Treatment depends on the type of glomerulonephritis you have. Symptoms... Read More

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Image A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra. Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than are men. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to your kidneys.Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place. Symptoms:... Read More

Perioperative care of cannabis users

Image The perioperative management of patients using cannabis, either for recreational or medical purposes, remains a challenge for the anesthesiologist due to its multi-organ side effects. However, the interactions between cannabinoids and general anesthetic agents, as well as the impact on intraoperative patient care are not yet fully understood. Discussing cannabis pharmacology and perioperative considerations for naïve and chronic users. The Endocannabinoid System: The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a biological system consisting of specific lig... Read More

Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesia

Image Lung-protective ventilation during cardiac surgery: Lung-protective ventilation strategies use low tidal volume (TV), low driving pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). In a retrospective study of nearly 4700 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), lung-protective ventilation was associated with fewer postoperative pulmonary complications (pneumonia, prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation, need for reintubation, and/or poor oxygenation with arterial oxygen tension [PaO2]/fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2... Read More

Kidney stone disease

Image Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) develops in the urinary tract. Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms. If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in), it can cause blockage of the ureter, resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen. A stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination. About half of people who have had a kidney stone will have another within ten years. Most stones for... Read More

Clinical Nephrology and Research: Explore your Research Work-New Edition

Image Clinical Nephrology and Research [PULCNR] is a peer-reviewed journal that offers researchers and scholars in-depth useful reviews and research trials and surveys of new and novel approaches in the field of Clinical Nephrology and Clinical Sciences. Like the Anesthesia research, topics are diverse. Recent topics have included focussing on Clinical Nephrology Research: Clinical Nephrology Diabetic nephropathy Pediatric nephrolog... Read More

Post-obstruction pulmonary edema complicated by transient cardiac dysfunction in a young woman

Image A 17-year-old woman who had been healthy since birth developed postobstruction pulmonary edema (POPE) after maxillofacial surgery. She was extubated in a semi-conscious state after general anesthesia, and developed severe airway obstruction due to glossoptosis, and blood and secretions in the oral cavity. When the obstruction was released approximately 10 min later, the chest radiograph showed an increased cardiothoracic ratio, and cardiac ultrasonography showed a reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction when compared to the normal values for the same age. A diagnosis of type-I P... Read More

Anesthesiology Case Reports: Explore your Research Work-New Edition

Image Anesthesiology Case Reports [PULACR]  is a peer-reviewed journal that offers researchers and scholars in-depth useful reviews and research trials and surveys of new and novel approaches in the field of  Anesthesiology and Clinical Sciences. Like the Anesthesia research, topics are diverse. Recent topics have included focussing on Anesthesia Research: Anesthesiology Anesthetic drug administration Anesthetic practice... Read More

Nephritic Syndrome

Image Nephritic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage. This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling. Other symptoms may include weight gain, feeling tired, and foamy urine. Complications may include blood clots, infections, and high blood pressure. Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal change disease. It may also occur as a complication of diabetes or lupus. The underlying mechanism typically involves damage to the glomerul... Read More

Polycystic Kidney Disease

Image Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney. These cysts may begin to develop in utero, in infancy, in childhood, or in adulthood. Cysts are non-functioning tubules filled with fluid pumped into them, which range in size from microscopic to enormous, crushing adjacent normal tubules and eventually rendering them non-functional as well. PKD is caused by abnormal genes which produce a specific... Read More

Local Anesthesia and its evolution in Anesthesiology

Image Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well. It allows patients to undergo surgical and dental procedures with reduced pain and distress. In many situations, such as cesarean section, it is safer and therefore superior to general anesthesia. It is also used for relief of non-surgical pain and to enable diagnosis of the cause of some chronic pain conditions. Anesthetists sometimes combine both gene... Read More

Trends in Anesthesiology

Image The core element of the specialty is the study and use of Anesthesia and Anesthetics to safely support a patient's vital functions through the perioperative period. Since the 19th century, anesthesiology has developed from an experimental area with non-specialist practitioners using novel, untested drugs and techniques into what is now a highly refined, safe and effective field of medicine. In some countries anesthesiologists comprise the largest single cohort of doctors in hospitals. Trends for the future of anesthesiology: Lower income(as adjusted f... Read More

When Should You See a Urologist?

Image Urology is a branch of medicine that specializes in the medical and surgical aspects of the female and male urinary tract as well as the male reproductive system. Urologists usually focus on any of these 7 subspecialties: Calculi for stones in the urinary tract Female urology for pelvic outlet relaxation disorders and urinary incontinence Male infertility Neuro urology for erectile dysfunction and voiding disorders Pediatric urology Renal transplantation Urologic oncology, which deals with cancer ... Read More

Cranberry Juice Superior at Preventing a Urinary Tract Infection

Image Researchers reveal that cranberry juice is much better at preventing biofilm formation, the precursor of a urinary tract infection, than cranberry extracts. Having scientific research now proving the age old wisdom that cranberries are able to prevent a urinary tract infection, experts questioned if there’s a component of the berry that, when extracted plus condensed, probably in pill form, could be as beneficial as drinking cranberry juice or eating the sauce in preventing a urinary tract infection. Researchers examined proanthocyanidins or PACs, a group of flavonoids prese... Read More

Advancements of Acute Pain Management in Anesthesia

Image Incorporation of acute pain modalities within anesthesia practices has greatly expanded over the years, and this has brought positive changes in patient care and physician payment. However, where new techniques become "standard of care," adjustments. As the preeminent provider of outsourced anesthesia billing and management services in America, we are always interested in how anesthesia providers are modifying their practices to take advantage of new pain management modalities and changing patient expectations. Anesthesia is not just focused on the operating room and the... Read More

Obstetric Anesthesia: A Special Challenge for Anesthesiology Practices

Image Obstetric anesthesia is either a make-or-break service for anesthesia practices. Its unique aspects, including (a) the use of epidurals that don't require continuous attention, (b) the ability to manage multiple cases simultaneously, and (c) complex, diverse and inconsistent billing rules, make it a subject for special consideration. From a billing perspective, all anesthesia charges fall into three categories: time-based surgical anesthesia, obstetric (OB) analge... Read More

Call from Clinical Nephrology and Research: Open-Access (Volume 4: Issue: 1)

Image   Nephrology is a specialty practice addressing the protection, promotion, and optimization of health abilities, prevention of illness and injury, facilitation of healing, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, groups, communities and populations affected by kidney disease. Nephrology encompasses the primary, secondary, and tertiary care of individuals with potential and progr... Read More

Call from Anesthesiology Case Reports: Open-Access (Volume 3: Issue 1)

Image Anesthesiology is a recognized medical specialty. Anesthesiologists often work as perioperative physicians with responsibilities during the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods to keep the patient comfortable and safe. Other recognized functions within the practice of anesthesiology include management of patients with acute and chronic pain, assisting in the management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advanced cardiac life support and the management of critically il... Read More

Call for all the Esteemed Authors to Expertise their Research in Field of Anesthesiology

Image Our Journal Anesthesiology Case Reports is a monthly, esteemed Open Access and Peer reviewed journal which focuses on recent improvements, advance scientific contributions in the field of anesthesiology. Our Journal promulgates all the recent clinical practices that have taken part in the field of Anesthesiology and Anesthetics. Our ... Read More

Clinical Trends in Clinical Nephrology and Research

Image Our Journal Clinical Nephrology and Research (Pulsus Group) is a monthly, Peer reviewed and Open Access Journal which focuses on recent improvements and scientific advancements in the field of Clinical Nephrology. Our Journal promulgates all the recent clinical practices that have taken part in the field of Clinical Nephrology. Recent News: Clinico- Pathological Features and predictors of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in C3 gl... Read More

Recent Trends in Clinical Nephrology for Better World

Image Our Journal Clinical Nephrology and Research(Pulsus Group) is a monthly, Peer reviewed and Open Access Journal which focuses on recent improvements and scientific advancements in the field of Clinical Nephrology. Our Journal promulgates all the recent clinical practices that have taken part in the field of Clinical Nephrology. Nephrology, branch of medicine concerned with the study of kidney functions and the treatmen... Read More

Recent Trends in Anesthesiology for Better Clinical World

Image Anesthesiology Case Reports is a monthly, esteemed Open Access and Peer reviewed journal which focuses on recent improvements, advance scientific contributions in the field of anesthesiology. Our Journal promulgates all the recent clinical practices that have taken part in the field of Anesthesiology and Anesthetics. Recent News: Post-Partum Subdural Hematoma Revealed by Persistent Headache The subdural hemato... Read More

Explore Your Ideas and Scientific Work in Anesthesia for Better Science

Image Anesthesiology Case Reports is a monthly, esteemed Open Access and Peer reviewed journal which focuses on recent improvements, advance scientific contributions in the field of anesthesiology. Our Journal promulgates all the recent clinical practices that have taken part in the field of Anesthesiology and Anesthetics. In some countries anesthesiologists comprise the largest single cohort of doctors in hospitals, and their role can extend far beyond the tra... Read More

Clinical Nephrology and Research in Daily Life

Image Nephrology also studies systemic conditions that affect the kidneys, as diabetes and autoimmune disease; and systemic diseases that occur as a result of kidney disease, such as renal osteodystrophy and hypertension. A physician who has undertaken additional training and become certified in nephrology is called a nephrologist. The term "nephrology" was first used in about 1960. Before then, the specialty was usually referred to as "kidney medicine’’ Nephrology concerns the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, incl... Read More

Clinical Nephrology and Research Marks its Journey by Announcing Discounts on Article Processing charges

Image Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and Pediatric medicine that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Our Journal Clinical Nephrology and Research (Puls... Read More

Anesthesiology Case Reports- The Place to Expertise Inestimable Scientific Work

Image The core element of the specialty is the study and use of anesthesia and Anesthetics to safely support a patient's vital functions through the perioperative period. Since the 19th century, anesthesiology has developed from an experimental area with non-specialist practitioners using novel, untested drugs and techniques into what is now a highly refined, safe and effective field of medicine. Anesthesiology Case Reports is a monthly, esteemed Open ... Read More

Anesthesiological Practices in Daily Life Sciences

Image Anesthesiology, anaesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before, during and after surgery.                                                  &nb... Read More

Immunology and public health

Image On behalf of the Journal of Immune Disorders & Therapy, as Editor-in-Chief, it is my distinct honour and privilege to inform you that, it’s been second years we have started the Journal, presently we are celebrating the 30th Anniversary and we are privileged to welcome Analytical Society to our journal. Success of the Journal and we are special to invite Analytical Society to our Journal. As ... Read More

Clinical Anesthesia Practices To Improve World Of Clinical Sciences For Better Future

Image Anesthesiology Case Reports is a monthly, esteemed Open Access and Peer reviewed journal which focuses on recent improvements, advance scientific contributions in the field of anesthesiology. Our Journal promulgates all the recent clinical practices that have taken part in the field of Anesthesiology and Anesthetics. Our Editor... Read More

International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology

Image International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology is committed to distribute most elevated quality studies identified with clinical determination and administration of rheumatic ailments through facilitated parts of clinical consideration and clinical examination concentrated on propelling treatment and personal satisfaction for individuals with joint pain, immune system infections, bone issue, and related conditions. We feel contended to announce that our journal is successfully running in its Volume 14. We have successfully released special issues in our journal entitled Regenerati... Read More

Journal of Blood Disorders and Treatment celebrates its 2nd Anniversary by offering Massive Discounts in Article Processing Charges.

Image Journal of Blood Disorders and Treatment is peer-reviewed, open access, scholarly journal. It mainly aims at publishing the latest advancements in the field, enriching our understanding of blood disorders such as: Clotting Disorders, Anemias, Hematologic Malignancies, Coagulopathies, Thrombotic Disorders, ... Read More

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS CELEBRATES MORE THAN 10 YEARS OF MEDICAL RESEARCH PUBLICATION

Image International Journal of Anatomical Variations celebrates more than 10 years of its existence in the field of medical publishing and research and extends a very warm welcome to all the authors, researchers, editors, doctors, medical professionals, scientists and student to contribute their latest research findings as full length articles to this International Journal of Anatomical variation. The journal is committed to serve its readers authors by adding the state of the art facilities to enhance the autho... Read More